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Author Topic: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE  (Read 9313 times)

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #135 on: September 15, 2021, 04:44:44 PM »

Golden-crowned Kinglet, continued

Nesting and reproduction: The Golden-crowned Kinglet reaches the southern limit of its breeding range in the mountains of East Tennessee. It usually nests above 4,000 feet in spruce-fir forests, and occasionally in hemlocks.

Clutch Size: 8 to 9 eggs

Incubation: The female incubates the eggs, which hatch in about 15 days.

Fledging: Both parents tend the young, who leave the nest in about 17 days.

Nest: The female builds a deep, globular cup-nest of moss, lichens, fine grasses and pine needles in a conifer tree. Nest heights range from 6 to 50 feet above the ground.

Status in Tennessee: The Golden-crowned Kinglet is a locally common breeding bird in East Tennessee, and a common winter resident across the state. Migrants and wintering birds arrive in the fall starting in early October and depart by mid-April.

Map of Golden-crowned Kinglet eBird observations in Tennessee


Fun Facts:

The scientific name for the Golden-crowned Kinglet is Regulus satrapa. The Greek word satrapes means a king wearing a golden crown.
According to the web page of the Bird Banding Lab, a total of 188,202 Golden-crowned Kinglets were banded between 1955 and 2000. Of these, only 69 have been encountered at locations away from where they were banded (an encounter rate of 0.036%).
The female Golden-crowned Kinglet feeds her large brood of fledglings for only one day after they leave the nest. The male tends to the brood while she begins another nest. In spite of having eight or nine young to feed, the male manages to feed them and occasionally the incubating female by himself. Second clutches, however, have not been confirmed in Tennessee.
A single, tiny feather covers each of the Golden-crowned Kinglet's nostrils.
In very cold weather, tight lines of up to 4 or 5 Golden-crowned Kinglets have been found roosting on tree branches, presumably to help retain body heat.
Obsolete English Names: American Golden-crested Kinglet

« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:34:19 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #136 on: September 15, 2021, 04:46:18 PM »

Golden-crowned Kinglet, continued

Best places to see in Tennessee: Golden-crowned Kinglets breed at higher elevations on Roan Mountain and in Great Smoky Mountain National Park. During the winter, they can be found in woodlands across the state in mixed-species flocks with Ruby-crowned Kinglets, chickadees, titmice, and nuthatches.





Sources:
Ingold, J. L., and R. Galati. 1997. Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa). The Birds of North America, No. 301 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Nicholson, C. P. 1997. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Tennessee. Univ. of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Robinson J. C. 1990. An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Tennessee. Univ. of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. A. A. Knopf, New York, NY.
« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:34:36 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
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Phyl

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Re: COMMON BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #137 on: September 15, 2021, 04:54:01 PM »

Comming soon...a profile of the wonderful Eastern Bluebird
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #138 on: September 15, 2021, 04:56:36 PM »

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher,
Polioptila caerulea



This tiny, active, long-tailed songbird is one of the first migrants to return to Tennessee in the spring. The Blue-gray Gnatcatcher arrives in late March and its thin, nasal spee call can be heard in deciduous forests across the state.  It usually forages with its tail cocked, flicking it from side to side.  This behavior may flush insects that the gnatcatcher then sallies out to catch.

The breeding range extends across much of the lower 48 states southward into Central America. The Blue-gray Gnatcatcher spends the winter in the southern United States, Cuba, and Central America.

Description: The Blue-gray Gnatcatcher is bluish-gray above, white below, and has a tail almost as long as the body with white outer tail feathers. It has a white eye-ring, a small thin bill, and no wing-bars. The sexes are similar but the breeding male is slightly darker gray, with a black line from the bill to behind the eyes.

Length: 4.5"
Wingspan: 6"
Weight: 0.21 oz

Voice: The call is a high-pitched series of thin nasal spee notes. The song is a soft jumble of warbling notes.

Similar Species:

Cerulean Warbler males have a blue back, are white below with a thin dark breast band, have two wing-bars, and no eye-ring. The tail is notably shorter.
Ruby-crowned Kinglets are greenish with wing bars and shorter tails.
Habitat: Breeds in a variety of deciduous wooded habitats from shrubland to mature forest, especially near water.

Diet: Small insects and spiders.

Nesting and reproduction: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher population densities are highest in the South, especially in floodplains and swamps. They often raise two broods in a season, and males will leave the newly fledged young with the female as he starts construction on a new nest.

Clutch Size: Usually 4 to 5 eggs, with a range of 3 to 6.

Incubation: Both the male and female incubate the eggs for about 13 days.

Fledging: Both parents feed the young, which fledge in about 13 days.

Nest: The nest, built by both adults, is an open, high-walled cup made of dead grasses and plant fiber held together with spider webbing or caterpillar silk.  Bits of lichens attached to the outside help to camouflage the nest. Construction of the first nest takes 8 to 14 days.

The male alone builds the nest for a second brood constructing it with "recycled" material from the first nest. Nests are usually placed far out from the tree trunk on a horizontal branch. Nest heights in Tennessee range from 6 to 45 feet above the ground, with an average height of 21 feet.

Status in Tennessee: The Blue-gray Gnatcatcher is a fairly common summer resident of woodlands and woodland edges across the state. It arrives in late March and departs by late September. The population appears to be stable.
« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:34:50 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #139 on: September 15, 2021, 05:01:12 PM »

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher,, continued

 Map of Blue-gray Gnatcatcher eBird observations in Tennessee


Fun Facts:

The breeding range of the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher has to expand northward over the past 25 years, most dramatically in the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada.
By flicking their white-edged tail from side to side, gnatcatchers may scare up hiding insects. They remove the wings and beat large insects on a perch before swallowing.
The oldest known Blue-gray Gnatcatcher in the wild was 4 years 2 months old.
Obsolete English Names: blue-gray flycatcher

Best places to see in Tennessee: Blue-gray Gnatcatchers can be found in most large deciduous woodlands across the state. The best time of year to see them is in the spring before the trees leaf out, and when they are frequently singing.



« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:35:05 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #140 on: September 15, 2021, 05:02:44 PM »

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher,, continued






Sources:

Ellison, W. G. 1992. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), The Birds of North America (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Nicholson, C. P. 1997. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Tennessee. Univ. Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. A. A. Knopf, New York, NY.
« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:35:18 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #141 on: September 19, 2021, 07:43:51 PM »

Eastern Bluebird


The Eastern Bluebird was chosen for TWRA's Watchable Wildlife license plate because it is a common Tennessee bird that people have benefitted by putting up bluebird boxes.  This small thrush is a year round resident and can often be seen hunting along roadsides from a fence or low perch.

The breeding range of the Eastern Bluebird extends across the eastern half of North America southward into Central America. The northernmost nesters migrate to the southern part of the breeding range in winter.

The brilliant blue color of the male, the delightful call and familial behavior make the Eastern Bluebird one of the most popular songbirds in Tennessee. It is a permanent resident, though some birds may move short distances south from their breeding areas to avoid very cold temperatures.

Description: This medium-sized songbird has a large, round head, and a blue back, wings and tail.    The chest is orange, the lower belly is white, and the male is brighter than the female.

Adult male: a brilliant blue above and rusty orange on the throat and breast, whitish belly  Female: gray-blue above and dull rust on the throat and breast, whitish belly  Juvenile: similar to adult female but grayish with a speckled breast  (May-August) 

Length: 7"
Wingspan: 13"
Weight: 1.1 oz

Voice: The song is a soft musical cheer cheerful charmer melody. The call notes are raspy and scolding.

Similar Species:

No other songbird in Tennessee has a blue back and orange breast.
Habitat: Open habitats with little or no groundcover such as orchards, open woodlands, clear-cuts, parks, and large lawns in suburban and rural areas.  It is often observed perched on wires, posts, and low branches scanning the ground for prey. It traditionally nested in naturally occurring tree cavities or cavities created by woodpeckers in trees or fence posts.

Diet: Arthropods caught on the ground including: caterpillars, beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, and spiders are the main diet. In fall and winter, bluebirds eat large amounts of fruit from native species such as poison ivy, sumac, black cherry, dogwood, hackberry, blueberries, and mistletoe.
« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:35:35 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #142 on: September 19, 2021, 07:48:18 PM »

Eastern Bluebird, continued

Nesting and reproduction: Eastern Bluebirds are cavity nesters and typically have 2 broods each year, sometimes 3, and rarely 4 often use the same nest for all broods.  Bluebirds depend on naturally occurring cavities, tree cavities excavated by other species, or nest boxes. The female builds the nest of grasses, and lines it with finer material. Nest Box Instructions here.

Males attract females to the nest with a display in which he carries nesting material into and out of the cavity.   The breeding pair can stay together for several seasons.

Eastern Bluebirds suffer from competition with European Starlings and House Sparrows for nest sites, but the thousands of nest boxes that have been erected appear to off-set these detrimental effects (see link below for nest box designs that exclude starlings).

Clutch size: Usually 4 to 5 pale blue (or rarely, white) eggs. Female begins laying eggs a few days after the nest is completed and usually lays one per day.   In Tennessee first clutches are commonly laid in March, last clutches in July or August.
Incubation: The female incubates the eggs for 12 to 14 days.  Incubation does not start until after all eggs are laid so that all eggs hatch on the same day.

Fledging: The young are fed by both parents and fledge in 15 to18 days. Young produced in early nests usually leave their parents in summer, but young from later nests frequently stay with their parents over the winter.









« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:35:51 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #143 on: September 19, 2021, 07:53:09 PM »

Eastern Bluebird, continued
Songs and Calls: Song is a soft, warbled "cheerful charmer". Call is a soft "tru-ly" when communication with mate or young. Also gives a raspy alarm call. 

Status in Tennessee: The Eastern Bluebird is a common permanent resident across the state though some individuals may migrate further south in winter. Populations appear to be stable, but vulnerable in especially severe winters.
Populations fell in the early 20th century due to many factors. Competition for nesting sites from introduced species, loss of open space and natural nesting cavities, increased pesticide use and climatic events contributed to the decline.

In the 1970's, conservation efforts to provide nest boxes specifically designed to keep out the larger European Starling combined with a campaign to provide and monitor boxes for use by invasive House Sparrows has helped with the recovery of the beloved species.

Map of Eastern Bluebird eBird observations in Tennessee


Fun Facts:

The clutch size of Eastern Bluebirds varies with latitude and longitude. Bluebirds that nest farther north and farther west have larger clutches than southern nesters.
In especially cold weather, several individuals will roost together in one cavity to stay warm. This species has been observed using nest boxes to stay warm during cold winter nights, packing 8-12 individuals into one box.
The oldest known Eastern Bluebird in the wild was 10 years 6 months old.
Obsolete English Names: bluebird

« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:36:22 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: COMMON BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #144 on: September 19, 2021, 07:55:58 PM »

Eastern Bluebird, continued







Best places to see in Tennessee: Eastern Bluebirds are found in every county in the state. Many state and local parks have "bluebird trails" with multiple bluebird houses.

Sources:

Gowaty, P. A. and J. H. Plissner. 1998. Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis), The Birds of North America (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Nicholson, C. P. 1997. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Tennessee. Univ. Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Robinson J. C. 1990. An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Tennessee. Univ. Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. A. A. Knopf, New York, NY.
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #145 on: September 20, 2021, 02:08:43 AM »

Hermit Thrush,
Catharus guttatus



The Hermit Thrush is primarily a migrant and winter visitor to Tennessee arriving in early October and departing by late April.  It is the only brown thrush you'd expect to see in the state during the winter months.

The Hermit Thrush is a quiet, unobtrusive bird spending most of its time foraging in the leaf litter or in berry-filled tangles at the forest edge . A behavioral characteristic that makes this bird easier to identify is its habitat of flicking its wings when perched and quickly raising and slowly lowering its ruddy-colored tail.

While a Hermit Thrush nest has yet to be found in Tennessee, males have been heard singing and juvenile birds have been found on Roan Mountain for the past 10 years.  The breeding range for this species extends across the boreal forest south through the western and northeastern United States and only recently has the breeding range extended into the southern Appalachians. Hermit Thrush winter over much of the Southeast and south through Mexico to El Salvador.

Description: This medium-sized thrush has a brown back and reddish tail. It has black spots on a white chest, buffy sides of the chest, a thin whitish eye-ring, and a bill that is pale at the base and black at the tip. The Hermit Thrush cocks its tail up and flicks its wings frequently.

It also characteristically lifts its tails up quickly and lowers it slowly. Both male and female look alike. While often difficult to see, its distinct chup or tuck call note, sometimes repeatedly given from a low perch, may reveal its presence.

Length: 6.75"
Wingspan: 11.5"
Weight: 1.1 oz

Voice: The song is a melodious flute-like warble, mostly on one pitch, starting with a clear whistled single note. The call, commonly heard in winter, is a low chup or tuck.

Similar Species:

Swainson's Thrushes are similar, but have a very distinct buffy eye-ring and a strong buffy wash on the breast. The tail is the same color as the back, and is not reddish.
Gray-cheeked Thrushes have only a partial eye-ring and the tail does not contrast as sharply with the back.
The Hermit Thrush is the only brown thrush expected in Tennessee during the winter.
Habitat: The Hermit Thrush winters in moist forests with a dense understory, open woodlands, and especially in ravines and sheltered sites. It breeds in the interior of deciduous, mixed, and coniferous forest. In the Appalachians, it breeds in the high-elevation spruce-fir forest.

Diet: Insects and other arthropods, including fruit in winter.
Nesting and reproduction: The first breeding season record of an adult Hermit Thrush in Tennessee was in 1966 on Roan Mountain. As of the spring of 2009, no nests have been found.

Clutch Size: Usually 3 to 4 eggs with a range of 2 to 5 eggs.

Incubation: The female incubates the eggs for 11 to 13 days.

Fledging: Both parents feed the young, and the chicks fledge in 11 to 12 days.

Nest: Built by the female, the nest a bulky cup of grasses, leaves, mosses, twigs, rootlets, hair, mud, and lichens, and lined with finer material. It is placed on or near the ground, or low in small trees.
« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:36:41 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #146 on: September 20, 2021, 02:11:29 AM »

Hermit Thrush, , continued

Status in Tennessee: The Hermit Thrush is an uncommon to fairly common migrant and winter resident across the state. It arrives in early October and departs by late April. A few pairs may possibly nest in the state and are restricted to the highest elevations (above 5,000 feet) in the mountains of East Tennessee. Continent wide, the population is slightly increasing.

Map of Hermit Thrush eBird observations in Tennessee


Fun Facts:

East of the Rocky Mountains Hermit Thrush nests are usually found on the ground. In the West they are more likely to be found in trees.
The oldest known Hermit Thrush in the wild was 9 years 9 months old.
Obsolete English Names: dwarf thrush

Best places to see in Tennessee: Never an easy bird to see, the Hermit Thrush is fairly common in forests with a well developed understory from early October to late April. It might also be found above 5,000 feet on Roan Mountain from early May through late June.


« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:36:55 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #147 on: September 20, 2021, 02:13:04 AM »

Hermit Thrush, , continued





Sources:
Jones, P. W. and T. M. Donovan. 1996. Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus), The Birds of North America (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Nicholson, C. P. 1997. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Tennessee. Univ. Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. A. A. Knopf, New York, NY.
« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:37:10 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #148 on: September 20, 2021, 08:20:09 PM »

Wood Thrush,
 Hylocichla mustelina


The ethereal flutelike ee-oh-lay song of the Wood Thrush is one of the most hauntingly beautiful sounds in the Eastern forest.  Henry David Thoreau once wrote, "Whenever a man hears it, it is a new world and a free country, and the gates of heaven are not shut against him."

The Wood Thrush is found in larger woodlands across Tennessee from mid-April through mid-October, and though its population has been declining, it is still fairly common.  The breeding range extends across the eastern half of the United States and Wood Thrush migrate to Central America for the winter.

Description: This large forest thrush is just slightly smaller than an American Robin. The back of the head and nape are a bright orange-brown fading to olive-brown on the back and wings. The underparts are white with bold black spots; the legs are pink, and there is a bold white ring around the eye. Sexes are alike.

Length: 7.75"
Wingspan: 13"
Weight: 1.6 oz

Voice: The song is a melodic series of flute-like ee-oh-lay phrases, ending in a trill either higher or lower in pitch. The call is a rapid pit pit pit.

Similar Species:

Veery are reddish, not bright orange-brown, on the head and nape, and have few indistinct spots on the chest.
Hermit Thrushes have a reddish tail, but the rest of the upperparts are brown-olive. The spots on the chest are relatively indistinct and do not reach the belly.
Brown Thrashers are similar in color but have a long tail, wingbars, and streaks, not spots, on the chest. They live in scrubby areas rather than forests, but the two species can overlap on migration.
Habitat: Breeds in a wide variety of deciduous and mixed forests but needs a well-shaded understory, small trees with low, exposed branches, and a fairly open forest floor with leaf litter. Winters mostly in primary, broad-leaved forests at lower elevations.

Diet: Invertebrates and fruits; the latter are especially important during migration.

« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:37:23 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

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Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #149 on: September 20, 2021, 08:23:53 PM »

Wood Thrush, continued

Nesting and reproduction: Wood Thrushes often raise two broods of young in a single nesting season. In fragmented forests they are a fairly common host to the Brown-headed Cowbird resulting in lower nesting success.

Clutch Size: Usually 3 or 4 eggs with 2 to 5 being rare.

Incubation: The female alone incubates the eggs for about two weeks.

Fledging: Both parents feed the nestlings, and the young leave the nest when about two weeks old becoming independent in 3 to 4 weeks.

Nest: The female builds the cup-nest of dead leaves and grasses held together with mud and lined with rootlets and grasses. It takes her approximately 3 to 6 days to complete the nest. It is usually placed in the fork of a horizontal or upward-sloping branch, often the lowest branch of a tree. In Tennessee nest heights range from 5 to 25 feet, with an average of 10 feet.

Status in Tennessee: While the Wood Thrush is still a relatively common summer resident across Tennessee, the Breeding Bird Survey reports a significantly declining population trend since 1966 when the survey began.

Destruction and fragmentation of forests in both breeding and wintering areas are factors in this decline. Wood Thrushes are present in the state from the first half of April until mid-October. The National Audubon Society has included the Wood Thrush as a Watch List Species.

Fun Facts:

Thrushes have a complicated syrinx (song box) that allows them to sing two notes simultaneously, thus harmonizing with their own voice.
Wood Thrushes are site faithful, often returning to the same breeding and wintering territory annually.
Recent studies at Cornell indicate that increased amounts of acid rain make the Wood Thrush less likely to breed. One reason is that acid rain can cause calcium to leach from the soil, and in an environment of reduced calcium, female birds may lay eggs that are thin, brittle, and porous.
The oldest known Wood Thrush in the wild was 8 years 11 months old.
Obsolete English Names: wood robin

Best places to see in Tennessee: Wood Thrushes may be found in most large tracks of deciduous forest across the state. High densities have been recorded in the Smoky Mountains and Cumberland Mountains.









Sources:

Nicholson, C. P. 1997. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Tennessee. Univ. Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Roth, R. R., M. S. Johnson and T. J. Underwood. 1996. Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), The Birds of North America (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. A. A. Knopf, New York, NY.



« Last Edit: September 30, 2021, 12:37:49 AM by Phyl »
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale
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