Raptor Resource Project Forum

Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
Advanced search  

News:

Author Topic: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE  (Read 9321 times)

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #165 on: October 01, 2021, 02:01:23 AM »

Cedar Waxwing, , continued







Sources:

Nicholson, C. P. 1997. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Tennessee. Univ. of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. A. A. Knopf, New York, NY.

Witmer, M. C., D. J. Mountjoy and L. Elliot. 1997. Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), The Birds of North America, No. 309 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.


'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #166 on: October 04, 2021, 01:28:15 AM »

Prothonotary Warbler
Protonotaria citrea



The Prothonotary Warbler apparently acquired its current name from Louisiana Creoles in the 18th century.  They thought the bird's plumage resembled the yellow robes of the prothonotaries, a Catholic church official who advises the Pope.

The Prothonotary Warbler is unique among eastern warblers because it nests in tree cavities in flooded forests.

It is found during the breeding season across much of the eastern United States ranging from Florida to eastern Texas and north to Wisconsin and New Jersey.  The breeding stronghold for the species, however, is in the lowlands of the southeastern United States, especially the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

Prothonotary Warblers spend the nonbreeding season in mangrove swamps in southern Central America and northern South America.  The highest concentration is in Costa Rica, Panama, and northern Colombia.

The Prothonotary Warbler is present in Tennessee from early April to early August.

Description: This small songbird has a golden-yellow head and chest.  The bird has a bright black eye, solid gray wings, and a white belly.

The male and female are similar, but the female is slightly duller and less golden. The plumage of the Prothonotary Warbler does not change during the non-breeding season.

Length: 5.5"
Wingspan: 8.75
Weight: 0.56 oz

Voice: The song is a series of clear, emphatic, ringing notes given at the same pitch: sweet sweet sweet sweet sweet. The call is a very loud, dry chip.

Similar Species:

The Prothonotary Warbler is unique in appearance and unlikely to be confused with any other species.
Habitat: Prothonotary Warblers breed in wooded swamps, flooded bottomland forests, and along slow-moving rivers.

Diet: They eat insects and snails during the breeding season. On the wintering grounds, this species will also eat fruits, seeds, and nectar along with insects.

Nesting and reproduction: The Prothonotary Warbler is the only cavity-nesting eastern warbler.

It especially likes abandoned Downy Woodpecker holes but will use the holes of other woodpeckers, natural cavities, and will readily accept artificial nest boxes.

About half of the females in Tennessee will attempt a second nesting after completing the first.

Clutch Size: They usually 5 eggs, with a range of 3 to 6.

Incubation: The female incubates the eggs for 12 to 14 days, with the male occasionally bringing her food.

Fledging: Both adults feed the young, which leave the nest after 10 days. The fledglings are dependent on the adults for another 3 to 4 weeks. If the female finds another nest, the male will care for all the fledglings.

Nest: Inside an abandoned woodpecker hole or other natural cavities, the female builds a nest using mostly mosses and liverworts. It takes approximately 3 to 5 days to build the nest. The average nest height in Tennessee is about 6.5 feet. Nest Box Instructions here.

Status in Tennessee: The Prothonotary Warbler is a common summer resident found in cypress swamps and river bottomland forests.  It arrives from the end of March to the beginning of April and departs in late July to early August.
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #167 on: October 04, 2021, 01:30:35 AM »

Prothonotary Warbler, continued

The population appears to be stable in Tennessee but slightly declining elsewhere in the range.

Map of Prothonotary Warbler eBird observations in Tennessee


Conservation: The Prothonotary Warbler is on the National Audubon Society Watch List because of the continuing destruction of mangroves on their wintering grounds.

Fun Facts:

If a fledgling Prothonotary Warbler lands in the water after its first flight, it can swim to safety.
The Prothonotary Warbler is one of only two warbler species that breed in cavities. The other species is Lucy's Warbler found in the southwestern United States.
Obsolete English Names: golden swamp warbler

Best places to see in Tennessee: Meeman-Shelby Forest State Park and Wildlife Management Area, Chickasaw National Wildlife Refuge, Reelfoot Lake area, Tennessee River, Duck River, Hatchie River valleys. There is often a breeding pair on the dam at Radnor Lake State Park.

'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #168 on: October 04, 2021, 01:34:00 AM »

Prothonotary Warble, continued

Fun Facts:

If a fledgling Prothonotary Warbler lands in the water after its first flight, it can swim to safety.
The Prothonotary Warbler is one of only two warbler species that breed in cavities. The other species is Lucy's Warbler found in the southwestern United States.
Obsolete English Names: golden swamp warbler

Best places to see in Tennessee: Meeman-Shelby Forest State Park and Wildlife Management Area, Chickasaw National Wildlife Refuge, Reelfoot Lake area, Tennessee River, Duck River, Hatchie River valleys. There is often a breeding pair on the dam at Radnor Lake State Park.









Sources:
Nicholson, C. P. 1997. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Tennessee. Univ. of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Petit, L. J. 1999. Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), The Birds of North America (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. A. A. Knopf, New York, NY.
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #169 on: October 04, 2021, 05:06:44 PM »

Common Yellowthroat



The sprightly Common Yellowthroat usually stays low in thick marshy or brushy vegetation, and is often hard to see.  The bold black mask of the male and his distinctive wich-i-ty, wich-i-ty, wich-i-ty song makes this an easy warbler to identify.

The Common Yellowthroat breeds from western Canada across North America and spends the non-breeding season in the coastal southeastern states, throughout Mexico and Central America, and the Caribbean.

In Tennessee it is found statewide from mid-April to late October, and occasionally through the winter.

Description: The Common Yellowthroat is plain olive-green above and yellow below with a grayish belly. The male has a broad black mask bordered with white; the female lacks the mask and is duller overall.
Length: 5"
Wingspan: 6.75"
Weight: 0.35 oz

Voice: The song is a series of three wich-i-ty, wich-i-ty, wich-i-ty notes. The call note is a distinctive, husky chip along with a raspy, scolding trill.

Similar Species:

Female Common Yellowthroats resemble female Connecticut Warbler and Mourning Warbler, except they have dusky or grayish hoods and entirely yellow underparts. Both Connecticut and Mourning Warblers are rare migrants in Tennessee and are not often seen or heard.
Habitat: Common Yellowthroats breed in a variety of brushy habitats including fencerows, grassy marshes, abandoned agricultural fields, and brushy pastures.

Diet: Insects and other small invertebrates, and occasionally seeds.

Nesting and reproduction: Pairs form shortly after the females arrive on the breeding grounds, and most pairs raise two broods a season. When the first brood fledges, the female starts the second brood, and the male feeds the fledglings.

Clutch Size: Usually 4 eggs, with a range of 1 to 6.

Incubation: The female incubates for 12 days, with the male occasionally bringing her food.

Fledging: Both parents feed the young, which leave the nest in 8 to 10 days. The parents continue to feed the young for at least two weeks following fledging.

Nest: The female selects the nest site and builds the nest, usually in low, thick vegetation. The nest is a loose, bulky cup, sometimes with a partial roof, made of weeds, grass, sedge, and leaves, and lined with fine bark, grass, and hair.
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #170 on: October 04, 2021, 05:10:23 PM »

Common Yellowthroat,continued

Status in Tennessee: The Common Yellowthroat is a common summer resident and one of the most abundant of the wood warblers nesting in Tennessee.  It usually arrives in mid-April and departs by late October.

There are several winter records for this species in the state. The population has been declining in Tennessee and elsewhere in its range for several years.

Map of Common Yellowthroat eBird observations in Tennessee



Fun Facts:

The Common Yellowthroat was first collected in what is now Maryland, and described by Carl Linnaeus in 1766, making it one of the first species of birds to be described from the New World.
Common Yellowthroats are monogamous within a breeding season and only infrequently will males have two mates in their territory. Females, however, are not faithful to their mates and often attract other males with their calls for extra-pair copulations.
Obsolete English Names: northern yellowthroat, southern yellowthroat, Maryland yellowthroat.

Best places to see in Tennessee: This species is common in thick shrubby vegetation across the state from mid-April to late-October.







Sources:

Guzy, M. J. and G. Ritchison. 1999. Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), The Birds of North America, No. 448 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Nicholson, C. P. 1997. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Tennessee. Univ. Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. A. A. Knopf, New York, NY.

'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #171 on: October 09, 2021, 12:51:56 AM »

Northern Parula
Setophaga americana



The Northern Parula is the smallest eastern wood-warbler and although it is an active bird, its habit of foraging high in trees at the tips of branches makes it a difficult bird to observe.  The song, a rising buzzy trill, ending with an abrupt lower tsup, is a typical sound in the bottomland and ravine forests across Tennessee in the spring.

The Northern Parula arrives in early April and departs in late September.  The breeding range extends across the eastern half of the United States from southeastern Canada to the Gulf Coast.  In the non-breeding season, the Northern Parula can be found from southern Mexico to Honduras, in the Caribbean, and at the southern tip of Florida.

Description: The Northern Parula is a small, short-necked, short-tailed, active warbler.  It is gray-blue above with a yellowish-green upper back, two bold white wing bars, a bright yellow throat and breast, a white belly, and a white eye-ring broken by a black eye-line.  The male and female look similar but the male has an obvious breast-band of reddish-brown and black.

Length: 4.5"
Wingspan: 7"
Weight: 0.3 oz

Voice: The song is an up-slurred buzzy trill, usually ending with an abrupt lower tsup. Chip note is sharp.

Similar Species:

In appearance, the Northern Parula does not look similar to any other eastern warbler. The song, however, is similar to the Cerulean Warbler. Cerulean song lacks the last abrupt lower tsup note of the Northern Parula and the overall tone of the song is different.
Habitat: Bottomland, riparian, and ravine woodlands.

Diet: Insects and spiders.

Nesting and reproduction: Most nests are built in hanging bunches of epiphytic growth such as Spanish moss or lichens.

Clutch Size: Usually 4 to 5 eggs, occasionally 3 to 7.

Incubation: The female incubates the eggs for 12 to 14 days.

Fledging: Both adults feed the young. Because nests are so difficult to observe, the number of days to fledging is unknown.

Nest: The few nests described in Tennessee are constructed of Usnea lichen, in clusters of evergreen needles or deciduous leaves. In Tennessee, nests range in height from 9 to 95 feet, with an average of 51 feet above the ground.
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #172 on: October 09, 2021, 12:52:40 AM »

Northern Parulacontinued
Status in Tennessee: The Northern Parula is uncommon to fairly common summer resident of bottomland, riparian, and ravine woodlands across the state. The population in Tennessee has been increasing in recent years.

Map of Northern Parula eBird observations in Tennessee


Fun Facts:

Mark Catesby first described the Northern Parula as a Finch Creeper in 1731, and John James Audubon named it the Blue Yellow-backed Warbler in the 1840s.
There is a gap in the breeding distribution from Massachusetts and Connecticut westward. It is unknown if this gap is natural or caused by increased air pollution, which limits the growth of epiphytes that the warbler depends on for nest construction.
Obsolete English Names: blue yellow-backed warbler
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #173 on: October 09, 2021, 12:53:23 AM »

Northern Parulacontinued

Best places to see in Tennessee: Bottomland, riparian, and ravine woodlands across the state.









Sources:

M., Ralph R. and D. J. Regelski. 1996. Northern Parula (Parula americana), The Birds of North America No. 215 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Nicholson, C. P. 1997. Atlas of Breeding Birds of Tennessee. Univ. Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. A. A. Knopf, New York, NY.
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #174 on: October 09, 2021, 06:01:49 AM »

Yellow-rumped Warbler
Setophaga coronata


The Yellow-rumped Warbler is one of the most common warblers in North America and the only warbler to regularly winter in Tennessee.  It generally arrives in the state in late September and departs by mid-May.

A couple of other warblers that migrate through the state have yellow rumps, but none of those rumps are as conspicuous.  This distinctive yellow rump-patch has led birdwatchers to give it the affectionate name "butter-butt".

The broad breeding range of this bird stretches from Alaska south to Guatemala and east to the northeastern United States.  It is often abundant in winter in the southern United States, and travels as far as Mexico and the western Caribbean.  In Tennessee, it is commonly found in foraging flocks with Carolina Chickadees and Tufted Titmice.

Description: This small songbird gets its name from the bright yellow rump-patch that both sexes possess year round.  During the non-breeding season, when Yellow-rumped Warblers are present in Tennessee, both the male and female are overall brown with two white wing-bars and a yellow patch on the sides of the breast.

Breeding plumage, which many birds will acquire before departing in the spring, is quite different. The eastern "Myrtle" form has dark-streaked gray upperparts, white wing-bars, a dark cheek-patch, white underparts with dark streaking on the chest, and yellow patches on the sides of the breast. The female is duller than the male.

Length: 5.5"
Wingspan: 9.25
Weight: 0.43 oz

Voice: The song is variable and is not likely to be heard in Tennessee until late winter. It consists of a loose 2-part trill, the second part being slightly lower pitched than the first. The call note is a very distinct check.

Similar Species:

Two other warbler species with yellow rumps migrate through Tennessee: the Magnolia Warbler and Cape May Warbler. Both species have yellow underparts in spring and often in the fall, and neither species has a rump as bright yellow as the Yellow-rumped Warbler.
Habitat: During the nonbreeding season, this warbler is found in almost any habitat and expands its diet to include a substantial amount of fruit.

Diet: Insects and some fruit.
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #175 on: October 09, 2021, 06:04:08 AM »

Yellow-rumped Warbler. continued

Status in Tennessee: This warbler is a common migrant, and a fairly common winter resident across the state from October through April.

Map of Yellow-rumped Warbler eBird observations in Tennessee

Fun Facts:

Until 1973 the Yellow-rumped Warbler was considered two species: the Myrtle Warbler in the East, and Audubon's Warbler in the West. Myrtle and Audubon's Warblers hybridize in the southern Canadian Rockies and based on this and DNA evidence, the two were combined into a single species.
The Yellow-rumped Warbler is the only warbler able to digest the waxy coats on bayberries and wax myrtles. Its ability to digest these fruits allows it to winter farther north than all other warblers.
Obsolete English Names: myrtle warbler
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #176 on: October 09, 2021, 06:06:19 AM »

Yellow-rumped Warbler. continued

Best places to see in Tennessee: Can be found in mixed species foraging flocks in woodlands throughout the state from October through April.








Sources:

Hunt, P. D. and D. J. Flaspohler. 1998. Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata), The Birds of North America, No. 376 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Robinson J. C. 1990. An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Tennessee. Univ. of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. A. A. Knopf, New York, NY.
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #177 on: October 09, 2021, 04:08:50 PM »

Yellow-breasted Chat
Icteria virens



Although Yellow-breasted Chats are found all across Tennessee, they are frequently overlooked because they keep themselves well hidden in dense brushy vegetation.  The best way to see this bird is in the spring when the male sings his remarkable song from a conspicuous perch.

The song is a jumble of clucks, whistles, cackles, and squawks, occasionally including a mimic of another bird's song.  This bright yellow-breasted songbird was long thought to be the largest of the wood-warblers.  However recent genetic data suggests it is not a warbler at all, but what it is hasn't been resolved.

The Yellow-breasted Chat's summer range extends across the eastern United States and southern Canada, southward to Texas and northern Florida; they are also found in scattered regions across the western United States to very northern Mexico.  Chats winter in Mexico and Central America. They can be found in Tennessee between mid-April and late September.

Description: This medium-sized songbird has a bright yellow chest and throat, solid olive-green back, wings and tail, a white belly, and a long rounded tail. The white around the eye extending to the bill gives the impression of white "spectacles." The female is similar to the male, but her colors are usually not quite as bright.

Length: 7.5"
Wingspan: 9.75"
Weight: 1.88 oz

Voice: The song is an unmusical jumble of clucks, whistles, cackles, and squawks, and occasionally includes a mimic of another bird's song.

Similar Species:

Yellow-throated Vireos are smaller, have two white wingbars, and are found in the canopy of deciduous trees.
Habitat: Chats breed in a variety of dense, brushy habitats including shrubby areas along streams, swamps, forest edges, fencerows, recently abandoned farmland, regenerating burned-over forest, and logged areas.

Diet: Small invertebrates, fruits.

Nesting and reproduction: Yellow-breasted Chats are territorial and usually monogamous. During the early breeding season, the male will occasionally perform a flight-song display where he flies up, hovers with exaggerated wingbeats dangling his legs, and then returns to his perch.

Clutch Size: Usually 3 to 5 eggs, with a range of 1 to 6.

Incubation: The female incubates the eggs for 11 to 14 days.

Fledging: Both parents feed the young, which leave the nest in about 10 days after hatching.

Nest: The female builds the bulky cup of grasses, leaves, and weed stems, and lined with finer materials. It is placed low in a blackberry thicket or other dense shrub. Nest heights in Tennessee range from 1 foot to 6 feet, with an average height of 3 feet.
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #178 on: October 09, 2021, 04:11:00 PM »

Yellow-breasted Chat,continued

Status in Tennessee: The Yellow-breasted Chat is a common summer resident in low-elevation brushy areas throughout the state. They arrive in mid-April and depart in late September. Yellow-breasted Chat numbers have been declining in the state since the beginning of the Breeding Bird Survey in 1966.

Map of Yellow-breasted Chat eBird observations in Tennessee

Fun Facts:

The Yellow-breasted Chat is one of the few songbirds that will frequently sing at night.
Until recently the Yellow-breasted Chat was considered the most atypical New World warbler. The long-standing suspicion that it was not, in fact, a warbler was recently confirmed through genetic studies, but what it is most closely related to has not yet been determined.
Obsolete English Names: long-tailed chat
'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale

Phyl

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 3969
  • Maggie lives in Nashville,Tennessee Music City USA
    • https://parler.com @Phylll
Re: BIRDS OF TENNESSEE
« Reply #179 on: October 09, 2021, 04:14:00 PM »

Yellow-breasted Chat,continued

Best places to see in Tennessee: Yellow-breasted Chats are found in shrubby habitats in every county. They are most abundant on the Cumberland Plateau and in Middle Tennessee.







'Which is more beautiful — feline movement or feline stillness?' Elizabeth Hamilton

'A man who never sees a bluebird only half lives.'
Edwin Way Teale